Zone defenses differ from man-for-man defenses in that players are assigned a particular area of the court to defend rather than a specific opponent. Foremost attention is focused on the ball and the area of the court to be defended. All defenders mass in assigned areas in and around the free-throw lane and shift as a coordinated unit with each movement of the ball by the offense. This team massing and shifting protects the area close to the basket and makes short shots very difficult to obtain.
ADVANTAGES OF ZONE DEFENSE
1. It effectively counters the set-pattern offense involving screening and cutting.
2. It affords maximum protection in the area close to the basket, making short shots difficult.
3. Fouls are committed less frequently. A switch to a zone defense when a key player has accumulated several fouls is wise in many cases.
4. It conserves energy.
5. Fast Break opportunities are more easily obtained from zone formations.
6. Most zone defenses strengthen rebounding.
7. It is very effective on the smaller courts so often used by high school teams.
8. It minimizes fundamental mistakes by a defensive player.
9. It increases chances for pass interceptions and encourages “ball hawking”.
10. It is relatively easy both to teach and to learn.
11. The tall, slow player tends to play zone better then man-for-man.
12. Some opponents tend to have more difficulty attacking a zone than man-for-man.
DISADVANTAGES OF ZONE DEFENSE
1. It is weak against good outside shooting teams.
2. It is susceptible to fast-breaking teams.
3. It allows opponents to overload an area by placing two players in the area guarded by one defensive player.
4. Individual defensive fundamentals tend to be weakened.
5. It is often ineffective against the deliberate game or stall.
6. The offense often can move the ball faster than the defense can shift.
7. The standard zone defense must be abandoned when a team is behind late in the game.
8. Using the zone makes it more difficult to determine individual defensive responsibility.
GENERAL ZONE PRINCIPLES
1. Players must get into defensive position quickly Most offensive plans for defeating the zone include the fast break. Therefore, zone defensive players must hustle downcourt and into proper position immediately after giving up the ball.
2. Players must maintain good individual defensive stance. The quick shifts necessary to defend rapid ball movement can be executed quicker when proper defensive stance is maintained. In addition, correct stance is necessary to prevent offensive drives.
3. Players should keep hands up in position to deflect passes.
4. Talk between defensive players is of major importance in order to handle offensive movement. This is very difficult for a coach to obtain and requires constant reminding of the importance of defensive talk to the defense.
5. Players must focus their attention on the ball and shift quickly with each movement of the ball. The ball moves, all five players move, and all five players must have their eyes on the ball.
6. When an offensive player cuts through a zone near the ball, he should be guarded virtually man-for-man until no longer in position to receive a pass. The defensive player guarding him must then release and hustle back to his original position.
7. All players must be rebound conscious. It is more difficult to block out from the zone, but rebounding can be easier as all five players converge on the defensive basket. In addition, many zone offenses spread players too wide and thus make it very difficult to get an offensive rebound.
TYPES OF ZONE DEFENSES
There are three major zone defenses used by modern basketball teams:
1. 2-1-2 zone. This defense is strong in the post area and corners and affords good rebounding strength. It is weak on the sides at the free-throw line extended.
2. 1-2-2 zone. This defense is the strongest zone against outside shooting teams and has been used more than other zones with the advent of the 3 point shot. It provides excellent fast-break opportunities, especially if the two inside defenders are good rebounders. It is somewhat weak in the corners and can be difficult to defend a good post player.
3. 1-3-1 zone. This defense is exceptionally strong in the post area and therefore a good defense when playing against a strong post player. It can also be weak against corner shooters.
THE MATCH-UP ZONE DEFENSE
The match-up zone defense attempts to shift into position to be able to defend each opponent man-for-man, and this shifting into position is referred to as “matching up”. It can be very confusing to the offense, especially if the offense does not use good movement.
Some key advantages of the match-up are:
1. Many opposing teams fail to recognize the defense.
2. Many teams do not have a match-up zone offense.
3. It reduces fouling.
4. It affords good defensive rebounding.
5. A team can hide a poor defender to a certain degree.
6. A team can play zone yet still put pressure on the ball.
In order to use a match-up, a coach must study basic rules of the match-up and how to teach the defense. There are several good books on the match-up, but probably the best way to learn it is to find a coach who specializes in the defense and ask him/her to teach you the defense. Most coaches are willing to share information with young coaches who are just learning the game. One thing is for certain, you cannot teach the defense unless you KNOW it. Study the defense, know its basic rules, and know what drills are best to help you teach it to your players.
Glenn Wilkes is editor of BasketballsBest.com and a former NCAA head basketball coach. He publishes a free basketball coaching newsletter and has two basketball coaching ebooks listed at amazon kindle.